The terrace was later replaced by the Hall of Mirrors, The main floor (above the ground floor) of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens. A monumental painting by Vernet features Louis Philippe himself, with his sons, posing in front of the gates of the Palace. Le Vau's enveloppe of the Louis XIII's château provided a means by which, though the decoration of the garden façade, imagery in the decors of the grands appartements of the king and queen formed a symbiosis with the imagery of the gardens. Bosquet des Sources - La Colonnade With the relocation of the statues from the Grotte de Thétys in 1684, the bosquet was remodeled to accommodate the statues and the Fame fountain was removed. (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976; Nolhac 1899, 1901, 1902, 1925). In 1793, the Convention declared the abolition of the monarchy, and ordered all of the royal property in the Palace to be sold at auction. Hadouin-Mansart added a second level and two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale (Royal Courtyard). Water from the Grand Canal was pumped back to the reservoir on the roof of the Grotte de Thétys via a network of windmill-powered and horse-powered pumps. Cette salle fut ensuite élargie à un ensemble plus vaste: les salles de Constantine, du Maroc et de la Smalah. The Automaton Clock was made for the King by the royal clockmaker Antoine Morand in 1706. 1693, "Le théâtre d'eau-vue de l'amphithéâtre" by Jean Cotelle, ca. It began with the original château, with the brick and stone and sloping slate mansard roofs of the Louis XIII style used by architect Philibert Le Roy. ", This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 21:10. [85], During the reign of Louis XIV and most of the reign of Louis XV, there was no plumbing to speak of in the palace itself. 1693, "Salle des Festins ou Salle du Conseil" by Étienne Allegrain, ca. [78], Supplying water for the fountains of Versailles was a major problem for the royal government. Dating from the time of Louis XIV and still using much of the same network of hydraulics as was used during the Ancien Régime, the fountains contribute to making the gardens of Versailles unique. [99] For example, the Parliament met in joint session at Versailles to pass constitutional amendments in June 1999 (for domestic applicability of International Criminal Court decisions and for gender equality in candidate lists), in January 2000 (ratifying the Treaty of Amsterdam), and in March 2003 (specifying the "decentralized organization" of the French Republic). The galerie was completely remodeled in 1704 when the statues were transferred to Marly and the bosquet was replanted with horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum) – hence the current name Salle des Marronniers (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Originally, these statues were set in three individual niches in the grotto and were surrounded by various fountains and water features. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. His spoon, fork, and knife were brought to him in a golden box. [40] After the war when Soviet authorities were restoring the palace, which had been gutted by the retreating Nazi forces, they recreated the silk fabrics by using preserved 18th-century remnants. L'Echo du Rocher. The queen's apartment formed a parallel enfilade with that of the grand appartement du roi. [111], Clearly, the silver furniture alone represented a significant outlay in the finances of Versailles. This column in Sèvres porcelain (1807), commemorating the victories of Napoléon I at the time of the German Campaign in 1805, stands in the center of Salle du Sacre (Coronation Room), formerly the King's Guardroom, at Château de Versailles. [31], In 1815, with the final downfall of Napoleon, Louis XVIII, the younger brother of Louis XVI, became King, and considered returning the royal residence to Versailles, where he had been born. Starting this May 4, 2019, the Palace of Versailles unveils a new layout of the Salles Louis XIV recounting the reign of the Sun King. Consequently, because furniture with a royal provenance – and especially furniture that was made for Versailles – is a highly sought after commodity on the international market, the museum has spent considerable funds on retrieving much of the palace's original furnishings. He ordered the restoration of the royal apartments, but the task and cost was too great. The groves of Versailles created by André Le Nôtre, gardener and architect to the King, saw many Court entertainments and have often been modified over the years. QUT Digital Collections. A simple hunting lodging and later a small château with a moat occupied the site until 1661, when the first work expanding the château into a palace was carried out for Louis XIV. Gaspard's brother Balthazard designed six lead half-human, half-frog figures to grace the water spouts surrounding the Latona statue, with 24 cast lead frogs positioned on the grass surrounding the perimeter of the fountain. However, with an eye on economy, Louis XVI ordered the palissades – the labour-intensive clipped hedging that formed walls in the bosquets – to be replaced with rows of lime trees or chestnut trees. Jonas Bendiksen. [82] The aqueduct was intended to carry water by gravity from a high reservoir near the river, through the gardens of the Château de Maintenon, to Versailles. [40], When these results and the high quality achieved were brought to the attention of the French Minister of Culture, he revived 18th-century weaving techniques so as to reproduce the silks used in the decoration of Versailles. For the extensive park around the palace, see, "Versailles" redirects here. 1693, "Bosquet des trois fontaines-vue du côté" by Jean Cotelle, ca. [21] Louis XV remained faithful to the original plan of his great-grandfather, and made few changes to the exteriors of Versailles. The marble facing and statues were covered in years of accumulated grime, obscuring the vibrant colors of the marble and the gilt fixtures as they originally appeared. Statues from the Grande Commande of 1674 were relocated to other parts of the garden; two twin octagonal basins were constructed and decorated with bronze statues representing the four main rivers of France. The ground floor gallery of the south wing was prone to this, to the extent that iron bars had to be installed in the corridor outside the rooms of the Dauphin Louis and the Dauphine when they moved to the south wing in 1745. During the winter of 1774–1775, Louis XVI ordered the replanting of the gardens on the grounds that many of the trees were diseased or overgrown and needed to be replaced. Below the fireplace is a painting of Clio, the Muse of History, recording the exploits of the King. 85.1 x 108.9 cm. (Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Owing to the many modifications made to the gardens between the 17th and the 19th centuries, many of the bosquets have undergone multiple modifications, which were often accompanied by name changes. The creation of the gardens of Versailles is the context for the film A Little Chaos, directed by Alan Rickman and released in 2015, in which Kate Winslet plays a fictional landscape gardener and Rickman plays King Louis XIV.[48]. The marvel of the gardens of Versailles – then as now – is the fountains. The centerpiece is an enormous sculpted medallion of Louis XIV, on horseback, crossing the Rhine in 1672, created by Antoine Coysevox. The rest of the façade is completed with columns, painted and gilded wrought-iron balconies and dozens of stone tables decorated with consoles holding marble busts of Roman emperors. It is not actually a dragon, but a python, a mythical serpent that was killed by Apollo. Designed as a simple unadorned salle de verdure by Le Nôtre in 1678, the landscape architect enhanced and incorporated an existing stream to create a bosquet that featured rivulets that twisted among nine islets. The coronation Room was decorated by King Louis-Philippe for … Use our Versailles trip itinerary maker website to arrange your visit to Salle du Jeu de Paume and other attractions in Versailles. The grands appartements (Grand Apartments, also referred to as the State Apartments[50]) include the grand appartement du roi and the grand appartement de la reine. Some are now decorated with contemporary works of art. Atop the mansard slate roof are elaborate dormer windows and gilt lead roof dressings that were added by Hardouin-Mansart in 1679–1681. ", Marriage, Thierry. Other painters featured include Horace Vernet and François Gérard. This bosquet was conceived as an open-air gallery in which antique statues and copies acquired by the Académie de France in Rome were displayed. Founders of the spirit of fine watchmaking, the men and women of Vacheron Constantin continue to design, develop and produce exceptional timepieces true to the brand’s three fundamental pillars: … "Sur la restauration de quelques sculptures du parc du Versailles. Assiduous husbanding of this resource by museum officials prevents tapping into the supply of potable water of the city of Versailles (Thompson, 2006). These improvements increased the water capacity to nearly 3,000 m3 of water per day; however, the increased capacity of the Grande Pompe often left the Clagny pond dry (Thompson, 2006). … Initially he added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. In 1750, the year in which les jardins botaniques were constructed, the Jardinier-Fleuriste, Claude Richard (1705–1784), assumed administration of the botanical gardens. [13][14] These items were melted down in 1689 to contribute to the cost of fighting the Nine Years' War. [66], The Royal Opera during the celebration of the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette (1770), Ceiling of the opera, painted by Louis Jean-Jacques Durameau, The Royal Opera of Versailles was originally commissioned by Louis XIV in 1682 and was to be built at the end of the North Wing with a design by Mansart and Vigarani. In 2017 the Palace of Versailles received 7,700,000 visitors, making it the second-most visited monument in the Île-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and ahead of the Eiffel Tower. Grotte des Bains d'Apollon, contemporary view. As with the Bosquet des Trois Fontaines, this bosquet survived the modifications of the 18th century, but was replanted in 1830 at which time the fountains were removed. Most of the apartments of the palace were entirely demolished (in the main building, practically all of the apartments were annihilated, with only the apartments of the king and queen remaining almost intact), and turned into a series of several large rooms and galleries: the Coronation Room (whose original volume was left untouched by Louis-Philippe), which displays the celebrated painting of the coronation of Napoleon I by Jacques-Louis David; the Hall of Battles; commemorating French victories with large-scale paintings; and the 1830 room, which celebrated Louis-Philippe's own coming to power in the French Revolution of 1830. Other notable groves include Les Dômes, the Bosquet d'Encelade (after Enceladus, c. 1675), the Théâtre d'Eau (Water Theater), and the Bains d'Apollon (Baths of Apollo). It shows Louis XIV, facing the powers of Europe, turning away from his pleasures to accept a crown of immortality from Glory, with the encouragement of Mars. Each bosquet had its own theme and fountains, statuary, grottoes, and other decoration. Ayers 2004, pp. (Marie 1972, 1975; Nolhac 1901, 1925; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Modifications in the gardens during the third building campaign were distinguished by a stylistic change from the natural esthetic of André Le Nôtre to the architectonic style of Jules Hardouin Mansart. [109] Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France. Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau - Bosquet du Rond-Vert "Un grand pavillon d'Apollon pour Versailles: les origines du projet de Nicodème Tessin le jeun. Not currently on view. Each room contained a number of fountains that played with special effects. The campaign dates are as follows: First building campaign, 1661–1666; Second building campaign, 1670–1678; Third building campaign, 1680–1687; Fourth building campaign, 1704–1715. It is estimated that there were only three hundred of these at any one time. Seizing upon the success of a system devised in 1680 that raised water from the Seine to the gardens of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, construction of the Machine de Marly began the following year. In 1671, André Le Nôtre conceived a bosquet – originally christened Salle des Festins and later called Salle du Conseil – that featured a quatrefoil island surrounded by a channel that contained fifty water jets. These are decorated with smaller works of sculpture, representing the rivers of France, which are placed so as not to interfere with the reflections in the water. At this time, the bosquet was rechristened Jardin du Roi (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Expanding the layout established during the first building campaign, Le Nôtre added or expanded on no fewer that ten bosquets: The Bosquet du Marais in 1670;[18] the Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau,[19] Île du Roi and Miroir d'Eau,[20] the Salle des Festins (Salle du Conseil),[21] the Bosquet des Trois Fontaines in 1671;[22] the Labyrinthe[23] and the Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe[24] in 1672; the Bosquet de la Renommée (Bosquet des Dômes)[25] and the Bosquet de l'Encélade[26] in 1675; and the Bosquet des Sources[27] in 1678 (Marie 1972, 1976; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985).[28]. Before entering the King's State Apartments, one had to climb the Ambassadors Staircase - a suitable entrance as its magnificence matched the grandness of the apartments. In 1817, Louis XVIII ordered the conversion of the Île du Roi and the Miroir d'Eau into an English-style garden – the Jardin du Roi. The gardens of Louis XIII required water and local ponds provided an adequate supply. It then became grander and more monumental, with the addition of the colonnades and flat roofs of the new royal apartments in the French classical or Louis XIV style, as designed by Louis Le Vau and later Jules Hardouin-Mansart. "Le labyrinthe et l'esprit du XVIIe. Stream 30 - Jardins - Fontaine salle de bal by Château de Versailles from desktop or your mobile device Some of the palace furniture at this time was constructed of solid silver, but in 1689 much of it was melted down to pay for the cost of war. 1693, "Galerie des Antiques" by Jean Joubert, ca. The project called not only for digging a canal and for the construction of an aqueduct, it also necessitated the construction of shipping channels and locks to supply the workers on the main canal. Berger I, 1985; Bottineau, 1988; Mariage, 1986; Marie, 1968; Nolhac, 1901, 1925; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1961, 1985; Waltisperger, 1984; Weber, 1993. Construction was begun by Hardouin-Mansart in 1699, and was completed by de Corte. In 1678, an octagonal ring of turf and eight rocaille fountains surrounding the central fountain were added. Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. This article often employs shortened footnotes. Bosquet des Trois Fontaines (Berceau d'Eau) Situated to the west of the palace, the gardens cover some 800 hectares of land, much of which is landscaped in the classic French formal garden style perfected here by André Le Nôtre. On October 6, 1789, from the balcony of this room Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette, joined by the Marquis de Lafayette, looked down on the hostile crowd in the courtyard, shortly before the King was forced to return to Paris. Technically, the "'Grotte de Thétys" played a critical role in the hydraulic system that supplied water to the garden. Louis XV's care for hygiene led him to install an early water closet, imported from England, in 1738. In 1685, the Machine de Marly came into full operation. [15][16][17], Le Brun also supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens. "The Parterre d'eau at Versailles: an eighteenth-century recollection. [38], In 1978, parts of the Palace were heavily damaged in a bombing committed by Breton terrorists. In this year it was proposed to divert the water of the Eure river, located 160 km. Those on display today were made in 1770 for the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, based on the moldings of earlier silver versions made by LeBrun that had been melted down. (Verlet, 1961, 1985), Between 1664 and 1668, a flurry of activity was evidenced in the gardens – especially with regard to fountains and new bosquets; it was during this time that the imagery of the gardens consciously exploited Apollo and solar imagery as metaphors for Louis XIV. ", Weber, Gerold. QUT Home; Contact; Advanced search. Prior to his marriage with Marie-Louise in 1810, he had the Grand Trianon restored and refurnished as a springtime residence for himself and his family, in the style of furnishing that it is seen today. It was rebuilt beginning in 1712 under the supervision of the First Architect of the King, Robert de Cotte, to showcase two paintings by Paolo Veronese, Eleazar and Rebecca and Meal at the House of Simon the Pharisee, which was a gift to Louis XIV from the Republic of Venice in 1664. The statue that currently occupies the center of the Colonnade – the Abduction of Persephone – (from the Grande Commande of 1664) was set in place in 1696 (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). The fountains survived the modifications that Louis XIV ordered for other fountains in the gardens in the early 18th century and were subsequently spared during the 1774–1775 replantation of the gardens. It features a semi-circular cascade that forms the backdrop for this green area. [108], To counter the costs of Versailles during the early years of Louis XIV's personal reign, Colbert decided that Versailles should be the "showcase" of France. The gardens and park were also enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours (1591–1637), and reached essentially the size they have today. The decoration of the walls and ceiling depicts scenes from the life of the goddess Diana. Edging the pool were metal reeds that concealed numerous jets for water; a swan that had water jetting from its beak occupied each corner. [62], The hall was originally furnished with solid silver furniture designed by Le Brun, but these furnishings were melted down in 1689 to help pay for war expenses. [47] The machine was a must-see for visitors to France. In the center is The Glory of the Father Announcing the Coming of the Messiah by Antoine Coypel, above the altar is The Resurrection of Christ, and above the royal gallery is The Holy Spirit Descending Upon the Virgin and the Apostles. In the center, a 3-storey avant-corps fronted with eight red marble columns supporting a gilded wrought-iron balcony is surmounted with a triangle of lead statuary surrounding a large clock, whose hands were stopped upon the death of Louis XIV. It marks both the end of a world – the French monarchy fell on 10 August 1792 – and the beginning of a new era full of hopes as well as worries. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589, and returned in 1604 and 1609, staying in the village inn. The areas were replanted with lime trees and were rechristened the Quinconce du Nord and the Quinconce du Midi (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). (Nolhac 1899, 1902), The "Grotte de Thétys", which was located to the north of the château, formed part of the iconography of the château and of the gardens that aligned Louis XIV with solar imagery. [77] Beyond the fountain, the Grand Canal extends 1800 meters to the south end of the park. [71], Another group of formal gardens is located on the north side of the water parterre. The Labyrinthe contained fourteen water-wheels driving 253 pumps, some of which worked at a distance of three-quarters of a mile. [35], The end of the 19th and the early 20th century saw the beginning of restoration efforts at the Palace, first led by Pierre de Nolhac, poet and scholar and the first conservator, who began his work in 1892. These additions were removed in 1708. The extension of the King's petit appartement necessitated the demolition of the Ambassador's Staircase, one of the most admired features of Louis XIV's palace, which left the Palace without a grand staircase entrance. Want to sell a work by this artist? As part of the replantation of the gardens ordered by Louis XVI during the winter of 1774–1775, the Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau was destroyed and replaced with the unadorned Bosquet du Rond-Vert (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). While the design used for the chambre du roi was, in fact, from the original design to decorate the chambre de la reine, it nevertheless represents a great achievement in the ongoing restoration at Versailles. "Commentaires anglais du XVIIe siècle sur le parc de Versailles. The Île du Roi was separated from the Miroir d'Eau by a causeway that featured twenty-four water jets. These plans were never put into action; however, the gardens were opened to the public – it was not uncommon to see people washing their laundry in the fountains and spreading it on the shrubbery to dry. In 1682, the southern bosquet was remodeled as the Bosquet de la Girondole, thus named due to spoke-like arrangement of the central fountain. [12], In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers. Built of red brick and cut stone embellishments, the U-shaped layout surrounds a black-and-white marble courtyard. The northern bosquet was rebuilt in 1696 as the Bosquet du Dauphin with a fountain that featured a dolphin. They were originally intended as his residence, but the King transformed them into galleries for his finest paintings, and venues for his many receptions for courtiers. [26] The museum project largely came to a halt when Louis Philippe was overthrown in 1848, though the paintings of French heroes and great battles still remain in the south wing. In 1687, he replaced it with the Grand Trianon, a larger and more classical pavilion designed by Mansart, with a terrace and walls faced with different colored slabs of marble. The construction in 1668–1671 of Le Vau's enveloppe around the outside of Louis XIII's red brick and white stone château added state apartments for the king and the queen. Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau is being recreated in 2014, with South Korean businessman and photographer Yoo Byung-eun being the sole patron, donating €1.4 million (~US$1.9 million) to the project.[40][41][42][43]. After the Revolution, the Trianon served as a residence for both Napoleon I and later for King Louis-Philippe when they visited Versailles. ", Mâle, Émile. 1693, "Bosquet des trois fontaines-vue de face" by Jean Cotelle, ca. Following the Franco-German War in 1871 and then the Paris Commune until 1875, the French National Assembly met in the opera, until the proclamation of the Third French Republic and the return of the government to Paris. In 1672, Jean-Baptiste Colbert devised a system by which the fountaineers in the garden would signal each other with whistles upon the approach of the king indicating that their fountain needed to be turned on. The Palace of Versailles offers a visual history of French architecture from the 17th century to the end of the 18th century. In 1682, when the palace had become large enough, the king moved the entire royal court and the French government to Versailles. The Peace Salon; Louis XV sharing benefits of peace by François Lemoyne, The Galerie des Glaces or Hall of Mirrors, Guerdirons or candle holders in the Hall of Mirrors, Relief of Louis XIV in the Salon of War, by Antoine Coysevox (1715). [9], Louis Philippe dedicates the Gallery of Battles, by François Joseph Heim (1837), The Gallery of Battles in the Museum of the History of France, The Battle of Taillebourg, by Eugène Delacroix (1837), Louis Philippe and his sons pose before the gates of Versailles, by Horace Vernet History Gallery, (1846), Shortly after becoming King in 1830, Louis Philippe I decided to transform the Palace into a museum devoted to "All the Glories of France," with paintings and sculpture depicting famous French victories and heroes.