St Bernard died in Clairvaux on August 20th 1153, a date that would soon become his feast day, for St Bernard was canonised within a few short years of his death. The European importance of Bernard, however, began with the death of Honorius (1130) and the disputed election that followed. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Bernard walked hundreds of miles and talked to a great number of influential people in order to ensure Innocent’s ultimate acceptance. His influence led Alexander III to launch reforms that led to the establishment of canon law. Bernard went again to Italy, where Roger II of Sicily was endeavouring to withdraw the Pisans from their allegiance to Innocent. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. He preached at the Council of Vézelay (1146) to recruit for the Second Crusade. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. But once out of Bernard's presence, he reneged. Bernard had returned to France in June and was continuing the work of peacemaking which he had commenced in 1130. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. Disciples flocked to it in great numbers and put themselves under the direction of Bernard. Temporal matters are merely accessories; the principles according to Bernard's work were that piety and meditation were to precede action. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. Bernard was instrumental in the appointment of GREGORIO PAPARESCHI, Pope Innocent II in the year 1130, despite the fact that not all agencies supported the man for the Papal throne. As the founder and abbot of the Abbey of Clairvaux, St. Bernard (1091-1153) was centrally responsible for the early expansion of the Cistercian Order throughout Europe. [19], Unlike the First Crusade, the new venture attracted royalty, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France; Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders; Henry, the future Count of Champagne; Louis's brother Robert I of Dreux; Alphonse I of Toulouse; William II of Nevers; William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey; Hugh VII of Lusignan, Yves II, Count of Soissons; and numerous other nobles and bishops. During an absence from Clairvaux, the Grand Prior of the Abbey of Cluny went to Clairvaux and enticed away Bernard's cousin, Robert of Châtillon. —Bernard of Clairvaux, quoted in The Crusades. [4] William yielded and the schism ended. [6] His father and all his brothers entered Clairvaux to pursue religious life, leaving only Humbeline, his sister, in the secular world. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force, replying: Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? Bernard is Dante Alighieri's last guide, in Divine Comedy, as he travels through the Empyrean. In June 1145, at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard traveled in southern France. Bernard was only nineteen years of age when his mother died. Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. At the Eucharist, he "admonished the Duke not to despise God as he did His servants". Lothair II became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism arose in the church. The question appears to be easily answered for in the small Templar type Church in St Bernard’s birthplace there is a marble plaque that states the Church was built by St Bernard’s mother in thanks for the safe return of her husband from the Crusade. He then went with him into Italy and reconciled Pisa with Genoa, and Milan with the pope. At the time of St Bernard’s arrival the abbey was under the guiding hand of Stephen, later St Stephen Harding, an Englishman. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. Completed eight years later in 1141, the Monastery was dedicated to the Blessed Mother and was originally named ‘The Monastery of … [6], Bernard was instrumental in re-emphasizing the importance of lectio divina and contemplation on Scripture within the Cistercian order. Saint Bernard de Clairvaux French abbot. St. Bernard died during the year of 1153 in Clairvaux, France. Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. [25], One day, to cool down his lustful temptation, Bernard threw himself into ice-cold water. 107867101, citing Abbaye de Clairvaux, Clairvaux, Departement de l'Aube, Champagne-Ardenne, France ; Maintained by David Martin (contributor 47817370) . This man had been a noviciate of St Bernard at Clairvaux and was, in all respects, St Bernard’s own man. The Mission of St. John the Divine became the Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux, named in honor of the great Saint who had been a leading influence among the Cistercians 847 years ago, and whose feast day is commemorated on August 20. A Catholic priest and abbot (director) of a religious institution at Clairvaux, France, Bernard's influence stretched far beyond the borders of France. [29] Pope Pius VIII bestowed on him the title "Doctor of the Church". A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae, representing the combined will of earth and heaven, https://books.google.com/books?id=kkoJAQAAIAAJ, List of Latin nicknames of the Middle Ages: Doctors in theology, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint archive, "Monuments historiques : Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard", "Sermon XIII: The Believers Concern, to pray for Faith", Audio on the life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Database with all known medieval representations of Bernard, "Here Followeth the Life of St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor", "Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard", Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Abbot, Doctor of the Church-1153, Lewis E 26 De consideratione (On Consideration) at OPenn, MS 484/11 Super cantica canticorum at OPenn, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_of_Clairvaux&oldid=996407825, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 12:18. Whether an ‘intention’ to create an Order of the Templar sort existed prior to the life of St Bernard himself is a matter open to debate. The Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux. [c] Bernard led to the foundation of 163 monasteries in different parts of Europe. He also silenced the final supporters who sustained the schism. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux 1115–1153, was one of the most eloquent preachers and spiritual writers of the medieval period. Abelard submitted without resistance, and he retired to Cluny to live under the protection of Peter the Venerable, where he died two years later. There is some dispute as to whether Bernard’s father had fought in the storming of Jerusalem in 1099, and indeed whether he died in the Levant. He was the hardest for Bernard to convince. By penitential practices he so exhausted his body that it could hardly sustain his soul, ever eager to praise and honor God. The son of a knight and vassal of the duke of Burgundy who perished in the first crusade, Bernard may have felt for a time the temptations of a military career, but the influence of a pious mother and his own inclinations towards a life of meditation and study led him to the cloister. Though not yet 30 years old, Bernard was listened to with the greatest attention and respect, especially when he developed his thoughts upon the revival of the primitive spirit of regularity and fervour in all the monastic orders. Gain access to 104 of his sermons—many of which examine the Song of Songs in vibrant detail. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy. Bernard de clairvaux. Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramentally ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. He had a special devotion to the Virgin Mary, and he later wrote several works about the Queen of Heaven.[4]. This caused the pope to be recognized by all the great powers. Henry I was sceptical because most of the bishops of England supported Antipope Anacletus II; Bernard persuaded him to support Innocent. In 1144 Eugene III commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade[6] and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade. About the same time he wrote his work on Grace and Free Will. He also preached against Catharism. St. Bernard's Parish Hall. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlin… Abelard's treatise on the Trinity had been condemned as heretical in 1121, and he was compelled to throw his own book into the fire. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. It is now housed in the Treasury of Troyes Cathedral and can be seen there, together with the skull and thighbone of St Malachy, a friend and contemporary of St Bernard. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. In the conclaveAnacletus IIwas elected by a narrow mnargin, but many influential cardinals favored the contender, Pope Innocent … Many letters, treatises, and other works, falsely attributed to him survive, and are now referred to as works by pseudo-Bernard. transl. Abelard sought a debate with Bernard, but Bernard initially declined, saying he did not feel matters of such importance should be settled by logical analyses. The next day, after Bernard made his opening statement, Abelard decided to retire without attempting to answer. It was this general chapter that gave definitive form to the constitutions of the order and the regulations of the Charter of Charity, which Pope Callixtus II confirmed on 23 December 1119. Many stories exist regarding Bernard’s early years – his visions, torments and realisations. Bernard's parents were Tescelin de Fontaine, lord of Fontaine-lès-Dijon, and Alèthe de Montbard [fr], both members of the highest nobility of Burgundy. Only the influence of a trusted friend and the order of the Chapter General convinced Bernard to ease up on his stringent regime. i of Xenia Bernardina, Vienna, 1891. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. Bernard suffered frequent bouts of ill health, almost from the moment he joined the Cistercians. [4], In the year 1128 AD, Bernard participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew of Albano. [5] During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. [14], Having previously helped end the schism within the Church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. [19] The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ"[19]. How and why St Bernard became involved in the formation of the Knights Templar may never be fully understood. Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace. Bernard was the third of seven children, six of whom were sons. Patronage. He appears to have received a good, standard education, at Chatillon-sur-Seine, which fitted him, most probably, for a life in the Church, which, of course, is exactly the direction he eventually took. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. The reputation of his holiness soon attracted 130 new monks, including his own father. Cistercians, Burgundy, beekeepers, candlemakers, Gibraltar, Queens' College, Cambridge, Speyer Cathedral. This continued for the remainder of his life and may have demonstrated an inability on the part of his digestive system to cope with the severe diet enjoyed or rather endured by the Cistercians at the time. There Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist(1090 – August 20, 1153) was a Frankish abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercianmonastic order. He was a staunch supporter of the Virgin Mary, a visionary and a man who had a profound belief in an early and very ‘Culdean’ form of Christianity. of the Sermones de tempore, de sanctis, and de diversis has been published by B. Gsell and L. Janauschek in vol. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year. In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church". Sunday mornings. St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church (Spanish: Monasterio Español de Sacramenia) is a medieval Spanish monastery cloister which was built in the town of Sacramenia in Segovia, Spain, in the 12th century but dismantled in the 20th century and shipped to New York City in the United States.

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